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Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Beginning Python Tutorial (Part 8)

Basic Statements

Now that we know how Python uses it's fundamental data types, let's talk about how to use them. Python is nominally a procedure-based language but as we'll see later, it also functions as an object-oriented language. As a matter of fact, it's similar to C++ in this aspect; you can use it as either a procedural or OO language or combine them as necessary.
The following is a listing of Python statements, borrowed from O'Reilly's Learning Python.
Generic Code Example:
Statement    Role      Examples 
Assignment   Creating references   curly, moe, larry = 'good', 'bad', 'ugly' 
Calls    Running functions   stdout.write("spam, ham, toast\n") 
Print    Printing objects   print 'The Killer', joke 
If/elif/else   Selecting actions   if "python" in text: print text 
For/else   Sequence iteration   for X in mylist: print X 
While/else   General loops           while 1: print 'hello' 
Pass    Empty placeholder   while 1: pass 
Break, Continue  Loop jumps           while 1:          if not line: break 
Try/except/finally  Catching exceptions          try: action() except: print 'action error' 
Raise    Triggering exception          raise endSearch, location 
Import, From          Module access   import sys; from sys import stdin 
Def, Return   Building functions   def f(a, b, c=1, *d): return a+b+c+d[0] 
Class    Building objects   class subclass: staticData = [] 
Global           Namespaces    def function(): global X, Y; X = 'new' 
Del    Deleting things   del data[k]; del data [i:j]; del obj.attr 
Exec    Running code strings  yexec "import" + modName in gdict, ldict 
Assert           Debugging checks   assert X > Y 

Assignment

Assignment is similar to other languages, so I won't cover it in depth. Suffice it to say, assignment is basically putting the target name on the left of an equals sign and the object you're assigning it from, on the right. There's only a few things you need to remember:
Assignment creates object references.
Assignment acts like pointers in C since it doesn't copy objects, just creates a reference to an object.
Names are created when first assigned
Names don't have to be "pre-declared"; Python creates the variable name when it's first created. But as you'll see, this doesn't mean you can call on a variable that hasn't been assigned an object yet. If you call a name that hasn't been assigned yet, you'll get an exception error.
Assignment can be created either the standard way spam = "SPAM", via multiple target spam = ham = "Yummy", with a tuple spam, ham = "lunch", "dinner", or with a list [spam, ham] = ["yum", "YUM"].
The final thing to mention about assignment is that a name can be reassigned to different objects. Since a name is just a reference to an object and doesn't have to be declared, you can change it's "value" to anything. For example:
Generic Code Example:
>>>x = 0  #x is linked to an integer
>>>x = "spam"         #now it's a string
>>>x = [1, 2, 3] #now it's a list

Expressions

Python expressions can be used as statements but since the result won't be saved, expressions are usually used to call functions/methods and for printing values at the interactive prompt.
Here's the typical format:
  • spam(eggs, ham) #function call
  • spam.ham(eggs) #method call
  • spam #interactive print
  • spam < ham and ham != eggs #compound expression
  • spam < ham < eggs #range test

The range test above lets you perform a Boolean test but in a "normal" fashion; it looks just like a comparison from math class.

Printing

Printing in Python is extremely simple. Using print writes the output to the C stdout stream and normally goes to the console unless you redirect it to another file.
Printing, by default, adds a space between items separated by commas and adds a linefeed at the end of the output stream. To suppress the linefeed, just add a comma at the end of the print statement:
Generic Code Example:
print lumberjack, spam, eggs,
To suppress the space between elements, just concatenate them when printing:
Generic Code Example:
print "a" + "b"

if Tests

The if statement works the same as other languages. The only difference is the else/if as shown below:
Generic Code Example:
if :               # if test 
             # associated block 
elif :             # optional elif's 
     
else:                     # optional else 
     
Unlike C, Pascal, and other languages, there isn't a switch or case statement in Python. You can get the same functionality by using if/elif tests, searching lists, or indexing dictionaries. Since lists and dictionaries are built at runtime, they can be more flexible. Here's an equivalent switch statement using a dictionary:
Generic Code Example:
>>> choice = 'ham' 
>>> print {'spam':  1.25,            # a dictionary-based 'switch' 
...       'ham':   1.99,            #use has_key() test for default case 
...       'eggs':  0.99, 
...       'bacon': 1.10}[choice] 
1.99

while Loops

The Python while statement is, again, similar to other languages. Here's the main format:
Generic Code Example:
while :             # loop test 
             # loop body 
else:                     # optional else 
             # run if didn't exit loop with break 
break and continue work the exact same as in C. The equivalent of C's empty statement (a semicolon) is thepass statement, and Python includes an else statement for use with breaks. Here's a full-blown whileexample loop:
Generic Code Example:
while : 
     
    if : break        # exit loop now, skip else 
    if : continue     # go to top of loop now 
else:
             # if we didn't hit a 'break'

for Loops

The for loop is a sequence iterator for Python. It will work on nearly anything: strings, lists, tuples, etc. I've talked about for loops before so I won't get into much more detail about them. The main format is below:
Generic Code Example:
for  in :   # assign object items to target 
     
    if : break        # exit loop now, skip else 
    if : continue     # go to top of loop now 
else: 
                # if we didn't hit a 'break'
From Learning Python:
When Python runs a for loop, it assigns items in the sequence object to the target, one by one, and executes the loop body for each. * The loop body typically uses the assignment target to refer to the current item in the sequence, as though it were a cursor stepping through the sequence. Technically, the for works by repeatedly indexing the sequence object on successively higher indexes (starting at zero), until an index out-of-bounds exception is raised. Because for loops automatically manage sequence indexing behind the scenes, they replace most of the counter style loops you may be used to coding in languages like C.
Related to for loops are range and counter loops. The range function auto-builds a list of integers for you. Typically it's used to create indexes for a for statement but you can use it anywhere.
Generic Code Example:
>>> range(5), range(2, 5), range(0, 10, 2) 
([0, 1, 2, 3, 4], [2, 3, 4], [0, 2, 4, 6, 8]) 
As you can see, a single argument gives you a list of integers, starting from 0 and ending at one less than the argument. Two arguments gives a starting number and the max value while three arguments adds a steppingvalue, i.e. how many numbers to skip between each value.

Well, that's it for this installment. As you can see, Python is a pretty simple language that "automates" many of the features you'd have to code by hand in other languages. Next time I'll discuss using procedural-style functions in Python followed by a more in-depth look at modules.

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